Monday, 25 April 2022

Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (1865 –1922)

With thanks to AC Benus* for suggesting I research Alfred and for finding Alfred's WW1 book.

 
Born in Chapelizod, County Dublin, Ireland, on 15th July 1865, Alfred Charles William Harmsworth ‘s parents wereAlfred and Geraldine Harmsworth.   He was educated at Stamford School in Lincolnshire, England, from 1876 and at Henley House School in Kilburn, London from 1878.  One of the masters at Henley House who was to prove important to his future was J. V. Milne, the father of A. A. Milne, who according to H. G. Wells was at school with him at the time and encouraged Harmsworth to start the school magazine.

Alfred began his newspaper career as a freelance journalist and started his own newspaper.  He seemed to have a sense for what people wanted to read and during the 1890s set up a series of cheap magazines, among them “Comic Cuts” and “Forget-me-Not”. On 4th May 1896, Alfred published the first edition of “Daily Mail” newspaper in London. It was an instant success and held the world record for daily circulation until his death on 14th August 1922.

Created a Baronet, of Elmwood, in the parish of St Peters in the County of Kent in 1904, during 1905 Alfred was raised to the peerage as Baron Northcliffe, of the Isle of Thanet in the County of Kent.  During the First World War, Alfred criticized the British government in 1915 over the lack of shells to send to the Fronts. He was in charge of a mission to the United States during 1917, and was director of enemy propaganda during 1918. Alfred’s influence on anti-German propaganda during WW1 was so great that a German warship was sent to shell his house – “Elmwood” in Broadstairs, Kent, in an attempt to assassinate him. The house still bears a shell hole because the wife of the gardner was killed during the attack.

In 1918, Alfred was made Viscount Northcliffe of St Peter's in the County of Kent, for his service as the director of the British war mission in the United States.   He died on 14th August 1922.

"Lord Northcliffe's War Book - with chapters on America at war, was published in 1916 by George H. Doran & Co. and was sold in aid of the Red Cross. This is from the Introduction:

FOR THE RED CROSS

This assembly of some of my letters, telegrams,

cablegrams, and other writings about the war,

and kindred matters, has been made at the re

quest of the British Red Cross Society and Order

of St. John.

The generosity of the publishers will permit

any profit that may arise to pass to the Joint

Committee of those Societies.

NORTHCLIFFE .

https://archive.org/stream/lordnorthcliffes01nort/lordnorthcliffes01nort_djvu.txt

The Portrait of Alfred Charles William Harmsworth in 1895 is by  Sir Leslie Matthew Ward (1851 – 1952).

*AC Benus is the author of a book about German WW1 poet Hans Ehrenbaum-Degele : “The Thousandth Regiment: A Translation of and Commentary on Hans Ehrenbaum-Degele’s War Poems” by AC Benus (AC Benus, San Francisco, 2020). Along with Hans's story, the book includes original poems as well as translations.    ISBN: 978-1657220584
https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1657220583


Wednesday, 5 January 2022

Book Review: “Reported Missing in the Great War 100 years of searching for the truth” by John Broom, with a foreword by Paul Reed (Pen & Sword Military, 2020)

“ … over half a million men remained missing upon the signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, and searching and exhumation work began in earnest on 21 November, with men volunteering for this grisly work being paid an extra allowance of 2s. 6p.* a day.” P. 30

“The missing continue to remind us of their presence, and the yearning for closure amongst their families remains unabated.”  P. 39.

When the First World War broke out, Great Uncle James from Northfleet, Kent, UK, joined the Royal West Kent Regiment. He had been transferred to the Northumberland Fusiliers when he was reported missing on the first day of the Battle of Arras, 9th April 1917 – which was Easter Monday that year.  This book is therefore of particular interest to me, as it goes into great detail about just some of those reported missing, the effect it had on their loved ones and the efforts of their families to find out what happened to them. And I can certainly relate to that "yearning for closure".

Although primarily about the missing of WW1, the book is filled with extremely interesting details – for instance, I discovered a female poet hitherto unknown to me - Emma Backhouse. And for the Fascinating Facts of the Great War section of my WW1 exhibition project, I discovered that two of Emma’s sons – Tom, b. circa 1885, and his brother George Harry, b. circa 1890 - went to live in the United States of America and became naturalised citizens in 1913.  Tom Backhouse joined the American forces in WW1 and was killed in action while serving in the Argonne with the 325 Infantry, 82nd Division of the U.S. Army.  (pp. 36 – 38).   His body was repatriated to Britain because he served with the U.S. Army - which is why he was included in the book.

Another fact I did not know was that, as a conscientious objector in the First World War, the British writer E.M. Forster served as a Chief Searcher (for wounded and missing servicemen) for the British Red Cross in Alexandria, Egypt, from November 1915 until January 1919.  He wrote: “It is depressing in a way, for if one does get news about the missing, it is generally bad news”. p. 2. 

On page 62, I discovered some of the artwork done by a soldier artist of WW1 – Frank Mead for the Artists of the First World War section of my project.

In fact, there is so much of interest in this book that I find it very hard to put down!  

Even if you are not among those who have family members who were reported missing during the First World War, this is an extremely interesting book and another must read for anyone interested in the history of the First World War.

For further information about this and other publications from Pen & Sword, please visit their website https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/

* NOTE: In the spending power of 2022, 2s. 6p. (two shillings and six pence = half a crown) would equate to around £25. 

Lucy London, Commemorative First World War Exhibition Project, January 2022


Friday, 19 November 2021

Richard Bell-Davies, VA (1886 - 1966) Royal Naval Air Service aviator who later became Vice Admiral Richard Bell Davies, VC, CB, DSO, AFC

Found on Twitter from Revd Nicholas Pye @RevdPye

Born in Kensington, London, UK in 1886, Richard enlisted in the Royal Navy in 1901, took flying lessons in 1910 and in 1913 joined the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) as a pilot.

On 19th November 1915, during a raid in Bulgaria, Richard Bell-Davies rescued pilot Fl SLt Gilbert Smylie, who had been shot down near Ferrijik Junction.

Richard swooped down in his plane, landed, grabbed hold of Symlie and hauled him on board his plane to safety, as the Ottomans attacked again.

That was the first ever combat search and rescue operation and Richard Bell-Davies was awarded a Victoria Cross (V.C.) for his action.


Artwork: "Richard Bell-Davies, VC, Rescues Gilbert Formby Smylie at Ferrijik Junction, Bulgaria, 19 November 1915" painted by Kenneth A. McDonough (1921–2002)

Credit: Fleet Air Arm Museum




Sunday, 14 November 2021

Book Review: “Royal Flying Corps Kitbag: Aircrew Uniforms & Equipment from the War over the Western Front in WW1” by Mark Hillier (Frontline Books – an imprint of Pen and Sword Books Ltd., Yorkshire, 2020)

Having read several books about First World War aviators and researched aviator poets for my commemorative exhibitions, I was very keen to find out more about the equipment needed in those early days of flight.  In this book, Mark Hillier has collected the most wonderful information about the uniforms and equipment that aircrew required to stay safely in the skies over the Western Front.

After admiring the front cover photograph, the first thing I discovered was on one of the first inside pages that the Latin motto of Britain’s Royal Air Force – “Per ardua ad astra” (Translation By hard work we reach the stars), which was the motto used by my primary school when I was there – was approved as the motto of the Royal Flying Corps, as the RAF was initially known, by King George V on 15th March 1913, and confirmed by Army Order No. 111”.

As an aside, due to my interest in the role of women in WW1, I was interested to note on page vi that the book is dedicated to the author’s family members, among them Nurse Memie Gwendolin Stephenson, who was a volunteer ambulance driver with the Red Cross.

Although Mark goes into great detail about equipment, he also explains the history of Britain’s military aviators and the background to the formation of the Royal Flying Cops.  

In the Introduction I noticed that “keeping warm was not just about creature comforts, but maintaining alertness which meant the odds of surviving increased on long or high-altitude sorties.”  Mark explains that “The focus was on the art of flying, and it was an art form at this time rather than a science.” (pp. viii and ix).

I found the chapters on flying clothing, flying equiment, unforms, rank, badges, insignia and buttons utterly fascinating.  They are chock full of the most wonderful photographs – many of them from Mark’s private collection - information, explanations and contemporary advertisements. “It seems that by August 1917 the RFC had started to adopt some electrically heated clothing.” (p. 93).   It is a real eye-opener to read about the trials and tribulations involved in finding out which clothes, goggles, gloves, helmets and boots, etc. were the best in those early days of flight, which were difficult enough without being shot at, and the research and testing necessary to manufacture them.

There are also chapters on paperwork and documents and on the transition from the Royal Flying Corps to the Royal Air Force.   With appendices, notes and an extensive bibliography, this is a book you will want to refer to again and again.

For further information about this and other wonderful books from Pen & Sword please see their website: https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/

Lucy  London


Saturday, 6 November 2021

"Twelve Secret Voices" A Hand-made mystery bedspread from World War One

In November 2018, Anne Schuermans was in a charity shop in Wales, UK, rummaging through a bag of white goods, looking for a tablecloth for Christmas Day, when she came across a rather unusual embroidered double bedspread. Anne tells us:  "The bedspread was unusual because the embroidery was not of baskets, seasons, flowers or bonneted ladies. There wasn’t even a bird or bow!  The embroidery was of REGIMENTAL BADGES!   Twelve in total, representing assorted units from seven commonwealth countries!

When my husband Damian and I identified them, another unique fact came to light - they were all active in World War One! Now we were REALLY intrigued!

This amazing bedspread helped us through 2020 by taking us on an international and often time- travelling adventure, including 1914 Ypres, a British actor in Hollywood, an Irish Convent, Chequers (yes - THAT one) and to numerous historic professional organisations.

And all because there is NO clue on it of WHO, WHERE, WHY, WHEN etc. it was made! NOTHING AT ALL!

These questions inspired us to write a book about our adventure and we are pleased that this beautiful article is now in a public collection for all to enjoy.  We have called the book .

"TWELVE SECRET VOICES:  A true World War One mystery" 

AND IT IS NOW AVAILABLE

£10 plus p&p worldwide from 

www.aspect-design.net

Anne and Damian"


Wow! I will definitely have to get a copy of this! 






Tuesday, 19 October 2021

John B. McDowell, MC, BEM (1877 – 1954) – British film maker, director and cameraman during WW1


John Benjamin McDowell was born in Plumstead, London, UK on 22nd December 1877.  His parents were George McDowell and his wife Susan, nee Franklin. He had a brother, George, who was born in 1882.

When he was fifteen, John began an apprenticeship as an engineer at Woolwich Arsenal, who manufactured armaments, munitions and explosives.  By 1898 he was working as a cameraman, projectionist and electrician for ‘The  British Mutoscope and Biograph Syndicate’, often showing  Biograph films of the Boer War at the Palace Theatre in London. 

John married Emily Ada White in 1900 and the couple lived in Deptford before moving to Willesden. On the 1901 Census, John described  himself a Biograph operator at the Palace Theatre, London.

In early 1908, John went into partnership with a former colleague and formed the ‘British and Colonial Kinematograph Company’ (B & C) producing news, documentaries and short comedies.

When the First World War broke out, John joined the voluntary home defence militia The Volunteer Training Corps. He negotiated for the rights to film the war – he was the signatory for ‘B & C’. In June 1916 after one of the two ‘Official War Office Kinematographers’ who had been authorised to film the allied armies in action in France was invalided home, John volunteered to replace him. While still a civilian, he travelled to the Western Front and worke with the other official cameraman, Geoffrey H. Malins, in the battlefields of the Somme. The officer in charge noted that, during the filming, “Mr McDowell ran considerable risks. I have seen him have very narrow escapes, notably from machine gun-bullets…when trying to cross no man’s land…and several times from shells….he has also been gassed”.

John then worked on several more film productions for the War Office including newsreels and the major films - ‘The Battle of the Ancre and the Advance of the Tanks’ and ‘The German Retreat and The Battle of Arras’.  In April 1918, although still a civilian, he was put in charge of the movements of all the cameramen on the Western Front. In June 1918, both he and Geoffrey Malins were awarded the ‘Medal of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire’ (known as the ‘BEM’ from 1922) for ‘courage and devotion to duty’. John was then commissioned as a Lieutenant in July 1918 when he was also awarded the ‘Military Cross’ for ‘courage under fire’. 


Filming King George V during his
visit to the Western Front, 1916

Note:  The Volunteer Training Corps was a voluntary home defence militia in the United Kingdom during the First World War, formed following a demand for a means of service for those men who were over military age or those with business or family commitments which made it difficult for them to volunteer for the armed services. At that stage of the war, Britain had on a voluntary system of enlistment and many men still held to the Victorian principle that it was the task of professional troops to fight a war, while voluntary militias provided for home defence.  Consequently, civilian local defence groups began to spring up spontaneously as soon as war was declared.

The volunteer movement gained publicity from letters and articles in newspapers advocating civilian participation in home defence, with notable proponents being Arthur Conan Doyle and H. G. Wells.  Harold Tennant, Under-Secretary of State for War, realising that the government could do little to prevent them, decided in September 1914 to allow the Central Committee of the London Volunteer Defence Force to continue. Lord Desborough became the President of the Association and General Sir O'Moore Creagh VC was appointed the Military Advisor. In November, the association was officially recognised as the administrative body of the VTC and formally subjected to conditions which prevented interference with recruitment into the regular army, barred members from holding military rank or wearing uniforms other than an armband and denied any state funding. The Volunteer Training Corps was suspended in December 1918, and officially disbanded in January 1920, with the exception of the Volunteer Motor Corps, which was retained until April 1921 in case of civil disorder.


Photographs: John McDowell on the Western Front and

John McDowell filimg King George V during his visit to British forces on the Western Front, 8-15 August 1916.

Sources:  Find my Past, Free BMD and

https://fragmentsof-history.com/2017/09/29/j-b-mcdowell/


Wednesday, 13 October 2021

Frank Maurice Jephson, ARCO (1886 - 1917) – British composer and organist

With thanks to Ciaran Conlan for telling us about Frank who was the only composer/musician in the list Ciaran sent me who was not on my list.  If anyone has a photograph of Frank please get in touch 


Frank Maurice Jephson was born into a musical family in Derby, Derbyshire, UK, the birth being registered in the first quarter of 1886.  His parents were Thomas Jephson, a coal merchant, and his wife, Emma H. Jephson, nee Raynolds and the family lived in Handel House, Curzon Street, St. Werburgh, Derby, which was built by Frank’s grandfather, John Jephson. Frank’s great grandfather was a music teacher and his great great grandfather was the organist at Alfreton Parish Church in Derbyshire.

Frank initially studied music with Mr S. Neville Cox.  On the 1901 Census - when he was fifteen - Frank is recorded as boarding in Kensington, London, along with John H. Williams, a professor of music from Lincolnshire, with whom Frank also studied music.  Frank’s music teacher, John Williams, was organist and choirmaster of Westbourne Park Baptist Church. In 1902, Frank became Assistant organist of the Westbourne Park Church and at the age of eighteen, Frank obtained his Associateship Diploma (ARCO) from the Royal College of Music – which demonstrates high achievement in organ playing and supporting theoretical work.

In 1904, Frank became the organist of Richmond-upon-Thames Presbyterian Church and in 1910 he married Margaret Kathleen Davis.  The couple lived in Acton, London, before moving to Richmond.   

In 1916, Frank joined the 1st/5th Battalion, London Regiment (London Rifle Brigade) as Rifleman No. 303040.  He was posted to France, where, according to a newspaper report, he was apparently commissioned, although I cannot find anything to back that up.  Frank was badly wounded fighting in France on 19th April 1917 and died of his wounds on 20th April 1917.  He was buried in Etaples Military Cemetary, France, Grave reference XIX. E. 5 and is also remembered on St Mary Magdalene Church - WW1 Roll Of Honour (WMR 12510) - in Richmond, now in Greater London, UK.

List of works by F. Maurice Jephson held by the British Library, which (except where noted) are for piano and were published by the London firm Joseph Williams:

Arabesque (1913)

Autumn "romance for piano" (1912)

Brownies: two short pieces for the piano (1924)

A Country Dance/A Woodland Dance (1927)

Danse Humoresque (1913)

"Dear golden Days" a song with words by P. J. O'Reilly (London: Novello & Co, 1918)

Five Pieces for Piano (1911)

Gaudeamus, for organ (London: The Organ Loft, 1911)

Hunting Song (1911)

Idyll (1912)

Impromptu (1911),

Marionettes "A Characteristic Sketch for the Piano" (1912)

Melody (1911)

"My Scotch Lassie" song with words by F. G. Bowles (J. Williams, 1914)

On the Hill-side (1917)

Postlude in C minor for Organ (reprinted by Bardic Music, 2002)

"Send back my long stray'd eyes to me" for male voice choir (TTBB) words by John Donne (Joseph Williams, c1930.)

Six Easy Pieces (On the Hillside, The Tin Soldier, Minuet, The Irish Piper, A Country Dance, Harlequin) (1914)

Two Little Waltzes (Joseph Williams, c1924)

Waltz in C (1911)


Sources:  Find my Past

Derby Daily Telegraph, 12th July 1935 and

https://www.classical-music.com/composers/14-composers-who-died-in-the-first-world-war/?fbclid=IwAR1Xi_l9aSl6dNQnH3RWrdQBNQ-cCcNRgWkrFiV1PvZGvNMl3sbeUTfqGlo

https://www.warcomposers.co.uk/jephson